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Key research

Clinical efficacy

Use of a one-dose subunit vaccine to prevent losses associated with porcine circovirus type 2

A total of 3,852 pigs in a commercial swine herd in eastern Canada were randomly allocated either to be vaccinated at 19 to 59 days of age with Ingelvac CircoFLEX® or to be injected on the same day with sterile water. The study pigs were placed in four different finishing units and in each one, mortality was significantly lower in vaccinated pigs (P < 0.01). No local or systemic adverse reactions were observed. Serological tests showed that pigs could be effectively vaccinated in the presence of maternal immunity and that there was no correlation between seroconversion in response to vaccination and protection.

Desrosiers R et al. Use of a one-dose subunit vaccine to prevent losses associated with porcine circovirus type 2. J Swine Health and Production 2009;17(3):148-154


PCVD Vaccination Provides Superior Control of PCV2 and PCVD

Contemporary barns of pigs in a Chilean commercial production system were either vaccinated with Ingelvac CircoFLEX® at approximately 14 days of age (n=14), left as controls (n=9) or injected twice in the nursery with tissue homogenate from dead pigs in the same production system (n=29). Barns of pigs vaccinated with Ingelvac CircoFLEX® at 2-3 weeks of age showed a clear and consistent thirteen fold reduction in mortality rate (7.78% to 0.59%) up to 70 days of age.

Performance measure Mortality rate (%) P value
Piglet vaccination significantly lowered mortality rate
Control 7.78  
Tissue Homogenate 4.27 p <0.01 vs control
Ingelvac CircoFLEX 0.59 p <0.01 vs control and homogenate

Carlos Gonzalez B. Vaccination Provides Superior Control of PCV2 and PCVD. IPVS 2008


The impact of seroconversion following vaccination on the efficacy of PCV2 vaccination

In a Canadian study Ingelvac CircoFLEX® was administered between 19 and 59 days of age to about 1900 pigs going to four different finishing units. Twenty pigs each vaccinated at 26, 40 and 52 days of age, and controls of the same age groups, were blood tested for the presence of PCV2 antibodies.

No correlation was found between seroconversion following vaccination and protection. Weak or no seroconversion was observed following vaccination, yet all groups of vaccinated pigs were well protected as the mortality difference between vaccinates and controls was highly significant in all groups.

Vaccination was also effective in the presence of maternal antibodies. The youngest vaccinated pigs were between 19 and 22 days of age at the time of vaccination, and were logically those with the highest level of maternal immunity. Nevertheless their mortality rate was 19 times lower than that of the controls (0.4% vs 7.6%).

Desrosiers R. The impact of seroconversion following vaccination on the efficacy of PCV2 vaccination. IPVS 2008


Comparative Performance of Barns of Pigs Vaccinated or Not Vaccinated with a One-Shot PCV2 Vaccine

Twelve barns of approximately 830 pigs/group were vaccinated at weaning (approximately 3 weeks of age) with a one shot piglet vaccine and were compared to 12 nonvaccinated barns of pigs.

Compared to non-vaccinates, vaccinated pigs had significantly decreased mortality rate and back fat depth while achieving increased ADG, percentage lean meat yield and increased percentage of pigs marketed.

Performance measure Vaccinates Controls P value
Piglet vaccination significantly lowered mortality rate
Mortality (%) 2.28 9.08 <0.0001
Culls (%) 4.84 7.69 0.3046
Average Daily Gain (g/day) 814 728 <0.0001
Feed Conversion Rate 2.95 3.03 0.55
Average Daily Food Intake (kg) 2.4 2.2 0.07
Back fat (mm) 19.7 22.0 0.0003
Loin depth (mm) 54.4 54.1 0.8324
Lean meat (%) 53.77 52.65 0.0014

Gillespie T. Comparative Performance of Barns of Pigs Vaccinated or Not Vaccinated with a One-Shot PCV2 Vaccine. IPVS 2008


Evaluation of Ingelvac CircoFLEX® efficacy in PCVAD affected farrow to finish farms in Korea

Piglets on three different farms were given either 1ml of vaccine IM (n=272)or phosphate buffered saline pH 7.2 (n=260) at approximately 3 weeks of age. All pigs were individually weighed at 3, 10, 16, 22 weeks of age. Mortality and clinical signs were recorded. Distribution and amount of PCV2 antigen in various tissues of dead pigs (Vaccinated n=20, Non-vaccinated n=73) were evaluated by PCR and immunohistochemistry.

The body weight was markedly increased and the mortality rate was reduced significantly by up to 82% in vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated groups. Typical clinical signs of PCVAD were only observed in non-vaccinated groups from 7 to 8 weeks of age onwards, including severe diarrhoea, increased breathing, fever and PDNS. The number of tissue samples tested positive in the PCR and immunohistochemistry tests was markedly lower in the vaccinated group compared to the control group.

Lyoo YS, Sunwoo S, Kim S. Evaluation of Ingelvac CircoFLEX® efficacy in PCVAD affected farrow to finish farms in Korea. IPVS 2008


Efficacy of a Novel One-Shot PCV2 Vaccine under Japanese Field Conditions

630 piglets aged 3-4 weeks received either Ingelvac CircoFLEX® (n=314) or placebo (n=316) at a dose of 1 ml IM. Vaccinated and control pigs were kept in the same pens, buildings, feeding and management conditions until the end of the study 18 weeks later. Viraemia was determined by real time PCR in 40 samples of each treatment group. Mortality rate was recorded weekly, clinical signs every other week, and body weight at start of the trial, study week 4 and 18.

A significant reduction in viraemia, mortality, and clinically abnormal pigs as well as a significant improvement in body weight was observed in vaccinated pigs after onset of viraemia, which occurred in a considerable number of control animals at study week 6. In addition, the number of runts was significantly reduced in the vaccinated group.

Miyashita M, Oda K, Yamaguchi T. Efficacy of a Novel One-Shot PCV2 Vaccine under Japanese Field Conditions. IPVS 2008


An Economic Analysis of Vaccinating Pigs with Ingelvac CircoFLEX® to Control Uncomplicated Clinical Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease (PCVAD)

Two weeks of weaned pig production from a PRRS and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae negative, PCVAD positive, 1250 sow farrow to finish farm were vaccinated at 3 (n=374) or 6 (n=364) weeks of age or remained non-vaccinated (n=368). Pigs were weighed at weaning, 10 and 19 weeks of age.

Vaccination of pigs with Ingelvac CircoFLEX® resulted in dramatic improvement in biologic and economic performance.

Performance measure 3wk vacc 6wk vacc Non vacc P value
Piglet vaccination resulted in dramatic economic performance
Cull rate, % * 1.68 0.86 6.31 <0.001
Nursery-finish mortality rate, % 4.29 4.66 9.51 <0.01
Nursery-finish ADG, (kg/day) 0.84 0.84 0.79 <0.0001
Total economic benefit per pig vaccinated US$9.85 NA NA

Cline G, Diaz E, Wilt V. An Economic Analysis of Vaccinating Pigs with Ingelvac CircoFLEX® to control uncomplicated clinical PCVAD. IPVS 2008


Reduction of PMWS-associated clinical signs and co-infections by vaccination against PCV2

1519 three-week old piglets were randomly treated either with Ingelvac CircoFLEX® or placebo. Besides weekly monitoring of clinical signs of PMWS, blood samples were collected weekly up to the age of 15 weeks, thereafter every second week. Antibody titre (IFAT) and viral load (PCR) were quantitatively determined. Lung tissue from dead pigs was used to detect specific nucleic acids of PCV2, PRRSV and Mycoplasma hyorhinis.

Before PCV2 viraemia analysis of lung samples showed no differences in the frequency of pathogens among both treatment groups. After the onset of PCV2 viraemia (10 – 26 weeks of age) the serum PCV2 viral load was highest in 11 to 16 week old pigs. Besides wasting, coughing was the predominant clinical sign. Vaccinated animals had statistically less Mycoplasma hyorhinis (p < 0.05) and considerably fewer PRRSV positive lungs compared to placebo treated animals. In lung samples from the placebo group triple infections with PCV2, PRRSV and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were commonly observed (10/24), whereas vaccinated pigs had considerably fewer triple infections (1/11) and no dual infections with PCV2 and Mycoplasma hyorhinis.

Piglets, given Ingelvac CircoFLEX® also showed:

  • Better average daily weight gain (mean bodyweight 4.8kg higher than controls at 26 weeks of age, p < 0.0001)
  • Shorter duration of viraemia (average 30.7 days shorter, p < 0.00001)
  • Significantly lower mortality (p = 0.0009) and significantly fewer ‘runts’ (p = 0.0001)

The study also indicated that the efficacy of the vaccine was not adversely affected by high levels of maternal antibodies.

Kixmöller M et al. Reduction of PMWS-associated clinical signs and co-infections by vaccination against PCV2. Vaccine 2008;26:3443–3451

A pdf of this article may be purchased from www.sciencedirect.com


Impact of Ingelvac CircoFLEX® on PCV2 and porcine circovirus associated disease

A mid-West production system affected with clinical PCVAD was selected to examine the impact of introduction of vaccination with Ingelvac CircoFLEX®. The farm which was PRRS, M hyo, SI, salmonella and PCV2 positive, was showing a wean to finish mortality of >10%. Sows from the source farm were vaccinated with a live PRRS vaccine and growing pigs were vaccinated with a two shot M hyo vaccine. 44 barns were vaccinated with Ingelvac CircoFLEX® at the time of the first M hyo vaccination and 38 barns received only M hyo vaccine.

Ingelvac CircoFLEX® vaccinated pigs exhibited significantly less PCVAD with lower mortality and culls (p<0.0001), improved food conversion efficiency (p<0.0005) and improved average daily weight gain (p<0.0001).

Economic analysis showed that vaccinated pigs showed an increase in net profit of $7.08 per pig.

© American Association of Swine Veterinarians 2008

Arnold et al. Impact of Ingelvac CircoFLEX® on PCV2 and porcine circovirus associated disease in a wean-to-finish production system. AASV 2008


UK Ingelvac CircoFLEX® Efficacy Study

Two consecutive batches of approximately 770 three week old suckling piglets were entered into a randomised, double blind placebo controlled study. Piglets were randomised within their litter and given either a single injection of 1ml Ingelvac CircoFLEX® or placebo. From week 10 onwards, vaccinated piglets thrived significantly better than controls, with fewer signs of PMWS. At the end of the study:

  • PCV-2 associated mortality was 89% lower in the vaccinated group
  • Vaccinated animals had a mean 6.8kg higher bodyweight

Woolfenden N. UK Ingelvac CircoFLEX® Efficacy Study. Presented at: PCVD — From Pathogenesis to Protection. Boehringer Ingelheim Satellite Symposium, June 25 2007, Krakow, Poland


Preliminary results with Ingelvac CircoFLEX®

In this large-scale, double blind study, matched groups of approximately 1,900 piglets each were allocated to receive either vaccination with Ingelvac CircoFLEX® or placebo at a range of ages from 19 to 59 days. The piglets were then allocated to one of four finishing units according to age at vaccination.

  • Age at vaccination 19-22 days: mortality 0.4% vs 7.6% in controls (p<0.001)
  • Age at vaccination 22-36 days: mortality 2.8% vs 10.6% in controls (p<0.001)
  • Age at vaccination 38-45 days: mortality 2.1% vs 8.1% in controls (p=0.002)
  • Age at vaccination 45-59 days: mortality 3.0% vs 9.6% in controls (p<0.001)

Mortality was significantly reduced in vaccinated piglets, irrespective of age at vaccination.

Desrosiers R et al. Preliminary results with Ingelvac CircoFLEX® to protect multiple ages of Quebec pigs against PCVAD. Presented at: PCVD — From Pathogenesis to Protection. Boehringer Ingelheim Satellite Symposium, June 25 2007, Krakow, Poland.


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